Egypt (Egyptian: Kemet; Coptic: ? Kīmi; Arabic: مصر Miṣr ; Egyptian Arabic: Máṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country in North Africa that includes the Sinai Peninsula, a land bridge to Asia. Covering an area of about 1,001,450 square kilometers (386,660 sq mi), Egypt borders Libya to the west, Sudan to the south, and the Gaza Strip and Israel to the east. The northern coast borders the Mediterranean Sea and the island of Cyprus; the eastern coast borders the Red Sea.
Egypt is one of the most populous countries in Africa. The great majority of its estimated 78 million people (2007) live near the banks of the NileRiver in an area of about 40,000 square kilometers (15,000 sq mi) where the only arable agricultural land is found. The large areas of the SaharaDesert are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with the majority spread across the densely populated centers of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
Egypt is famous for its ancient civilization and some of the world's most famous monuments, including the Giza pyramid complex and the Great Sphinx. The southern city of Luxor contains numerous ancient artifacts, such as the KarnakTemple and the Valley of the Kings. Egypt is widely regarded as an important political and cultural nation of the Middle East.